Bee rearing technique/Production technology
Rearing of honey bees involves the following stage:
1. Preparation of bee box
2. Catching a swarm.
3. Hiving a swarm.
4. Colony inspection.
♦ The selected site should be dry without dampness. High RH will affect bee flight and ripening of nectar.
♦ Clean natural or artificial source of water should be provided. ♦ Trees serve as wind belts in cool areas. ♦ Hives can be kept under shade of trees or artificial structures should be constructed to provide shade. ♦ Plants that yield pollen and nectar to bees are called bee pasturage and florage. Such plants should be plenty around the apiary site.
Honey Bee Farming Equipment
Thin & thick beekeeping brushes, SS knives, SS & iron hive tools of L shaped & curved shaped, Food graded plastic made queen cage, queen gate, hive gate, Honey Extractor, Smoker, Queen Excluder, Pollen Trap, Propolis Strip, Royal Jelly production & extraction Kit, Queen rearing kit, Bee venom Collector.
Management of bees for pollination
• It is recommended to place hives very near the field to save bee’s energy. • It is recommended to migrate colonies near the field at 10 % flowering. • It is recommended to place colonies at 3 per ha for Italian bee and 5 per ha for Indian bees. • The colonies should have at least 5 to 6 frame strength of bees and with sealed brood and young mated queen.
• Should allow sufficient space for pollen and honey storage.
Pests and Diseases
▲ Wax moths, Ants, Wasps, Wax beetles, Birds, Tracheal Mites, The parasitic mite Varroa destructor, Bee mites, Brood mite are the common pests found in honey bee farming. ▲ Nosema Disease, European foulbrood disease, American Foul Brood, Sacbrood disease (SBV), Thai sac brood virus (TSBV), Chalk brood disease and stone brood disease are the main diseases found in the honey bee farming.
Harvesting of Bee Products
Honey, Bes Wax, Royal Jelly, Bee Venom, Propolis & Pollen are the main bee products. Honey should be harvested at the end of a flowering season. In traditional or topbar hives, the beekeeper should select a comb which contain ripe honey covered with a fine layer of white beeswax, usually those nearest the outside of the nest. Honey is extracted only from super combs using honey extractor equipment.