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Causes of fruit spoilage and its Remedies

Causes of fruit spoilage and its Remedies

Spoilage

Spoilage of fruit means damage or decay or rotten of fruits due to unfavorable condition from harvesting to consumption.

Causes of spoilage of fruit

Different factors are responsible for spoilage of fruits which are given below

A. Biological factor 

 Microorganism such as fungi, bacteria etc.

 Insects such as fruit borer, fruit fly etc.

B. Physiological factors 

Respiration: The more the respiration, the less the shelf life of fruits. i.e. spoilage of fruits occurs quickly. Higher respiration leads to Rapid breakdown of Carbohydrates to CO2 and H2O and it can be shown as follows-

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP 

Transpiration: Transpiration also affected spoilage of fruits. High temperature is directly related to transpiration and reduces shelf life of fruits. i.e. Spoilage of fruits occurs.

C. Physical factors

 Supply of O2 and CO2 : Supply of more oxygen increases respiration rate. On the other, supply of carbon dioxide decreases respiration rate. So it is observed that shelf life. i.e. spoilage of fruits is mostly indirectly dependent on the supply O2 and CO2.

 Presence of unfavourable storage condition has high temperature, low humidity and lack of ventilation.

D. Others factors

 Defective harvesting and storage system.

 Stages of maturity of fruits at harvesting time.

 Types of fruits.

 Varieties.

 Composition of fruits.

 Wounds and bruises.

 Improper transportation.

 Rough handling.

 The ripe and unripe fruits kept together.

 Lack of organised system.

Remedies of spoilage of fruits

1. Fruits should be washed with water and wiped with towel and air dried, then they should be dipped in hot water at 55°C for 5 minutes. Benomil, Benlate etc may or may not be used in hot water.

2. Insecticide at a low dose should be sprayed on the fruits.

3. Fruits should be properly stored at low temperature followed by high relative humidity (85-90% humidity).

4. Fruits should be sorted out from the blemish fruits. Only the good or unblemished fruits should be selected for storage.

5. Fruit should be harvested at optimum stage of maturity and by proper method.

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