Causes of fruit spoilage and its Remedies
Spoilage of fruit means damage or decay or rotten of fruits due to unfavorable condition from harvesting to consumption.
Causes of spoilage of fruit
Different factors are responsible for spoilage of fruits which are given below
A. Biological factor
Microorganism such as fungi, bacteria etc.
Insects such as fruit borer, fruit ﬂy etc.
B. Physiological factors
Respiration: The more the respiration, the less the shelf life of fruits. i.e. spoilage of fruits occurs quickly. Higher respiration leads to Rapid breakdown of Carbohydrates to CO2 and H2O and it can be shown as follows-
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Transpiration: Transpiration also affected spoilage of fruits. High temperature is directly related to transpiration and reduces shelf life of fruits. i.e. Spoilage of fruits occurs.
C. Physical factors
Supply of O2 and CO2 : Supply of more oxygen increases respiration rate. On the other, supply of carbon dioxide decreases respiration rate. So it is observed that shelf life. i.e. spoilage of fruits is mostly indirectly dependent on the supply O2 and CO2.
Presence of unfavourable storage condition has high temperature, low humidity and lack of ventilation.
D. Others factors
Defective harvesting and storage system.
Stages of maturity of fruits at harvesting time.
Types of fruits.
Composition of fruits.
Wounds and bruises.
The ripe and unripe fruits kept together.
Lack of organised system.
Remedies of spoilage of fruits
1. Fruits should be washed with water and wiped with towel and air dried, then they should be dipped in hot water at 55°C for 5 minutes. Benomil, Benlate etc may or may not be used in hot water.
2. Insecticide at a low dose should be sprayed on the fruits.
3. Fruits should be properly stored at low temperature followed by high relative humidity (85-90% humidity).
4. Fruits should be sorted out from the blemish fruits. Only the good or unblemished fruits should be selected for storage.
5. Fruit should be harvested at optimum stage of maturity and by proper method.