Control of soil temperature
1. The thermal regimes favourable for plant growth as well as different micro-organisms can be maintained through different management practices under field condition. By regulating the amount of water either draining under waterlogged condition or adding water under dry condition in the field, soil temperature can be maintained. The soil temperature under waterlogged soil condition is very low and in order to increase the soil temperature under such condition it is essential to drain out the excess water from the field. The removal of water in this way lowers its specific heat and thus increase the soil temperature.
2. The colour of the surface soil also influence the thermal regime either favourably or adversely. As for example a soil surface containing black substances namely charcoal powder maintain high temperature while a soil surface containing white substances like chalk and other light substances shows low soil temperature because of more heat absorption in the former than that of the latter where more reflection of radiant energy occurs.
3. Soil temperature can also be maintained by providing different types’ of mulches on the soil surface. Mulches applied to the surface of a soil surface. Mulches applied to the surface of a soil affect the amount of heat received and the way it is dissipated. A surface mulch with a layer of dead vegetable waste material etc. has two types of effect on the soil (i) a characteristic effect on the soil surface and (ii) supplies different plant nutrients after decomposition through ploughing into the soil. A characteristic effect of those mulches is to keep the soil surface a more even temperature and more permeable to water. The mulched soil is much cooler during the heat of the day and rather warmer during the night.
4. Specially contoured and planted rows can modify low spring temperature effects by protecting the young plants with soil and positioning them to receive more direct sunlight greater .warming).
5. Dark coloured soils due to organic matter application are not warmer than that of light coloured soils because of high water content in the former which helps for lowering down the temperature.
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