Agronomy: The word agronomy has been derived from two Greek words “agros” and “nomos”. Agros means Soil of field and nomos means Management. So, Agronomy is the branch of Agricultural Science which deals with the principles and practices of crop production and management.
Farm: A farm is an area of land, including various structures, devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing food (produce, grains, livestock), fibers and increasingly fuel. Farms may be owned and operated by a single individual, family, community or a company.
Crop: A crop is an organism grown or harvested for obtaining yield. e.g. Cultivated plants, Cattle, Fishes etc.
Cereals: Cereals are the cultivated grasses, grown for their edible starchy grains. In general, the larger grains of Gramineae family used as staple food are cereals. E.g. rice, wheat, maize etc.
Cash crop: The crop plants which ware grown for sale to earn hard cash. e.g. Jute, Tobacco, Cotton, Sugarcane etc.
Tillage: Tillage may be defined as the working of the surface soil through manipulation of the soil with some tools and implements for loosening the surface crust and bringing about conditions favorable for seed germination and crop growth.
Zero tillage:Crop is planted directly into a seed bed not tilled since harvested of the previous crop.
Tilth: The physical condition of the soil brought out by tillage that Influences crop emergence, establishment, growth and development is termed as tilth.
Silage crop: Crop plants which are grown to preserve in pits in a Succulent condition by a process of natural fermentation for feeding livestock. e.g. Maize, Cowpea, Jowar.
Fodder crop: The crops which are used for animal feed. e.g. Napier, Goina, ipil-ipil.
Aus season: The season designates the cultivation of the rice variety which are planted in mid-March-April and harvested in mid June-July.
Aman season: The season designates the cultivation of the ric varieties which are planted in mid-July- mid August and harvested November-December.
Boro season: The season designates the cultivation of the rice variety which are planted in November-December and harvested in March April.
Soil fertility:Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to supply all essential nutrients to the plants in adequate amounts and in suitable proportions.
Soil productivity:Soil productivity refers to the ability of a soil produce crops. A soil may be fertile but may not be productive.
Pasture: The land or place where grasses or plants are grown which are used as fodder.
Crop rotation:Crop rotation may be defined as more or less regular recurrent succession of different crops on the same land generally in 3-7 years duration.
Cropping pattern:The yearly sequence of growing crops followed a given locality is called the cropping pattern of that locality.
Crop intensification:Crop intensification may be defined as growing of crops with intensive care and management by utilizing techniques and technologies to maximize the production in a unit land area with the accumulation of more number of crops per year.
Crop diversification:Crop diversification may be defined as the growing of different species of crops in a farm or region either succession or simultaneously or both together in the course of a year.
Multiple cropping:The intensification of cropping in time and spa dimension. Or, growing two or more crops on the same field in a year.
Sequential cropping:Growing two or more crops in sequence on the lie field per year. (Time dimension).
Intercropping:Growing two or more crops simultaneously on the field. (Space dimension).
Mixed intercropping:Growing two or more crops simultaneously with no distinct row arrangement.
Row intercropping:Growing two or more crops simultaneously where one or more crops are planted in rows.
Relay cropping:Growing two or more crops simultaneously during part of the life cycle of each.
Cropping index: The number of crops grown per annum on a given it of land x 100.
Cropping scheme:A cropping scheme is a detailed statement prepared in advance of a cropping season to be followed in a particular farm pertaining to crop production based on some scientific principles.
Organic farming:Organic farming is a production system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives (USDA).
Vermicomposting:Vermicompost is the organic manure produced by the activity of earthworms.
Stress: Stress means a constraining influence or pressure of the environmental factors on plants, whereby the effect is harmful.
Chilling temperature:When the environmental temperature is near 0°C (around 4-5°C but not less than 0°C) then it is called chilling temperature.
Drought: An extended period of dry weather, especially one injurious to crops. Or, a long period with no rain, especially during a planting season.
Water use efficiency:It is the ratio of crop yield to the total amount of water used in the field.
Litter: The bedding materials of cattle like straw, peat, saw dust, leaves etc. are called litter. It is a good manure.
Compost: Compost is organic manure prepared artificially by min; different types of plant residues and animal waste products.
Green manure: The practice of turning undecomposed green p tissues into the soil is referred to as green manuring. And the mar obtained by this method is known as green manure.
Irrigation:Irrigation is the application of water to the soil for purpose of supplying moisture, essential for plant growth.
Drainage:Agricultural drainage is the removal of excess water, known as free water or gravitational water from the surface soil.
LCC (Leaf Color Chart): LCC is a four colored scale which is used to determine the amount of nitrogenous fertilizer to the rice field b comparing the leaf color with this scale. Upper young flag leaf colour is compared with the scale colors at 9.00-11.00 am or 2.00-4.00. Compared leaf should be free from disease or pest and leaf should attached with plant. Using this scale 20-25% urea can be saved.
AWD (Alternate wetting and drying) method: It is a method determination of water requirement of Boro rice developed by BI where a perforate pipe (30cm long with 10cm diameter) is place (rice field at 10-15 days after planting. By observing the amount water in the pipe irrigation requirement can be minimized.
Drum seeder: It is a seed sowing equipment introduced by BRRI has plastic made six drums. Line sowing of rice in wet land is possible with this equipment. For using this equipment, field should be level well by ladder and soil should be moist but standing water should be removed.
Urea Super Granule (USG)
USG is a lager sized and compact form of urea fertilizer which I looked like naphthalene. Using this fertilizer effectiveness of urea fertilizer can be increased upto 25%. It can be applied in field one term instead of split application of pilled urea.
Other features are-
a. Rice seedling should be planted in line with 20cmx20cm spacing
b. USG should be applied (by dibbling) in soil 7-10 days after planting.
c. In Aus and Aman season, 1.8g (Urea Mega Granule- UMG) and in Boro season 2.7g (Urea Super Granules-USG) should be applied.
d. The granules (USG/UMG) need to be placed after 7-10 days of transplanting of rice at 8-10 cm soil depth at the centre of every four hills between rows 1 and 2, between rows 3 and 4, and so on.
e. The main benefit of USG/UMG placement is that N losses through NH3 volatilization, nitrification, denitrification and runoff are significantly minimized.
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