Factors Influencing Cropping Pattern
A. Climatic Factors
This is the most important factor influencing the cropping pattern. The factors involved are given below
· Temperature: It is one of the most critical factors that influences crop, from when seed is shown up to crop maturity.
· Rainfall: Water perform many functions in plants. It dissolves the nutrient in soil which is taken by the root. It promotes turgidity, cell growth and photosynthesis.
· Day length: A particular crops requires a definite periods of light and darkness for its growth and development.
· Humidity: Different plants required different humidity for their optimum growth and development.
B. Edaphic Factors
As the plant grows on soil, edaphic factors must be considered. The different factors concerned are
· Land elevation:Particular crops require particular elevation.
· Soil type: Most the crops do not grow in sandy soil as its water holding capacity is very low.
· Soil fertility:Cropping pattern is designed with consideration to the soil fertility.
· Soil moisture: Soil moisture is depend on its water holding capacity and this varies with soil type.
· Soil PH: Some crops grow well in acidic and some in alkaline. Most of the crop prefer neutral soil. It effects on cropping pattern.
C. Neutral Factors
These factor occur naturally which can’t be checked by man.
§ Flood level
§ Suspension material on the flood level.
D. Social Factors
§ Availability of market.
§ Market Price
§ Farmers knowledge and liking
§ Growers economic ability
§ Lack of courage and initiative to change
§ Food habit of the people
§ Irrigation Facilities
§ Availability of seeds and other materials
§ Density of labour
§ Working animals
E. Technological Factors
· Limited choice of crops.
· Cost and time consuming
· Limited use of fertilizer
· Poor response of biofertilizer
· Unavailability of organic manure. Limited scope of land improvement
· Lack of technological knowledge.
· Demand of food crop
· Food habit
· Market system
· Population density
· Transport and communication
· Custom and tradition
· Willingness and capability to change
· Attitude towards materials things
G. Historical Factors
· Landlord system
· Capital /money /money lending family/ stock
· Farmers proprietary right system
· Nil cultivation