How to establish a farm/Factors to be considered for establishment of a farm
The different farms are influenced by the different factors. These factors can be grouped into three categories viz., physical factors, economic factors and social factors, the details of which are presented below:
1. Physical factors:
a) Climate: It includes sunshine, rainfall, wind, length of sunlight, etc. These factors predominantly influence the choice of crops, thereby affecting the type farming. Crops like paddy and sugarcane requires substantial water while others like oilseeds, millets and pulses can withstand low rainfall.
b) Soil: The type of soil, depth of soil and fertility status of the soil affect the selection of crops. Deep soils facilitate production of a variety of crops bringing prosperity to agriculture. If soils are fertile, manurial costs can be reduced thereby the cost of cultivation.
c) Topography: It means the general contour of the land, whether it is hilly or plain. Temperatures are low and growing seasons are shorter at the higher elevation and therefore more suitable for establishment of plantation crops like tea, coffee, etc. Contour also determines the type of machinery that can be used and the rate of soil erosion which influences the choice of crop.
d) Water facility: Facility of water near the farm for irrigation purpose, i.g. presence of ponds, channels and beel, jheel, etc. should be considered. Drainage facilities are an important factor to establish a farm.
e) Land type: and type may be high, medium or low. So it should be desirable for the expected type of farm.
f) Market and transport facilities: Market facilities near the farm like big town, business centre, etc. are considerable factors for a farm. Transport facilities near the farm like high ways and roads, rail ways, water ways and air ways should also be considered.
2. Economic factors:
a) Relative profitability:Given the option of choosing among several crops in an area, farmer first look into the relative profitability of a given enterprise. A particular enterprise if found to be relatively profitable, farmers are inclined to go for it.
b) Availability of funds: Different enterprises require different levels of funds. For example, commercial enterprises like sugarcane, chilies, onion, and prawn culture, etc., require large amount funds. Therefore availability of funds determines the type of farming.
c) Availability of the inputs: All the inputs like labour, seed, fertilizer, etc., available as per the requirement. If labour shortages are common in an area during peak periods, certainly the farmer do keeping mind in the selection of the enterprises. Timely availability of other inputs in required quantities also influences their decision with regard to selection of enterprises.
3. Social factors:
a) School facilities
b) Hospital and community health facilities
c) Good neighbors
d) Recreational facilities for farm operator as well as to the farm labors like, radio, television, games etc.
e) Security guarantee, etc.
Above all factors should be considered to establish a farm.