How to Grow Black Gram
English name: Black gram.
Scientific name: Vigna mungo.
Importance of Black gram
Black gram is popularly known as “Mashkalai” is one of the most important pulses crop, grown across the world. This crop is resistant to adverse climatic conditions and improve the soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. This crop is grown primarily for its protein rich seeds and used as daal and as main ingredient in breakfast.
Variety of Black gram
BARI Mash 1(Pantho), BARI mash 2 (Shorot), BARI mash 3 (Hemonto).
Favorable Climate for Black gram cultivation
· It is generally grown in kharif/rainy and summer season.
· It grows best in hot and humid condition with ideal temperature range between 25 to 35o C.
· It can be grown successfully from sea level up to an elevation of 1800 meters.
· Heavy rains during flowering are harmful.
· It is best suited to areas having an annual rainfall of 60 to 75 cm.
Soil for Black gram cultivation
Soil in Black Gram cultivation should have neutral pH. Loam or clay loam soils are best suited soils for it’s cultivation. Adding higher organic matter in soil will result in vigorous seed production.
Land Preparation for Black gram cultivation
The land should be prepared by 2-3 ploughing, cross ploughing with laddering.
Method of sowing for Black gram cultivation
Broadcasting and line sowing can be done. For line sowing, Row to row distance 30 cm. Broadcasting can be done in Kharif2 season. Seeds should not be sown more than 5 to 6 cm in depth.
Seed Rate of Black gram
Seed treatment of Black gram
· Seed should be treated with thiram @ 2.5 g / kg seed.
· It should be treated with rhizobium culture for atmospheric N fixation.
Time of sowing of Black gram
• In Kharif1 season: Late February to Mid-March.
• In Kharif2 season: 15 August to 31 August.
Fertilizer Application for Black gram cultivation
Fertilizer Quantity/ ha
Urea 40-50 kg
TSP 85-95 kg
MoP 30-40 kg
Biofertilizer 4-5 kg
All fertilizer should be applied at final land preparation. Biofertilizer can be used 80 g/ kg of seed. If inoculum fertilizer applied then no need to application of Urea.
Weed control for Black gram cultivation
Immediately after sowing and watering, Basalin weedicide is sprayed by dissolving 2 ml of Basalin/liter water. The weedicide spraying must be done within 3 days of sowing. If it is done later, it can damage the crop. Applying weedicide will control the early growth weeds, to control later emerging weeds in the crop, manual weeding should be done after 2 weeks.
Irrigation for Black gram cultivation
Irrigation is not needed in rainy season, but in summer season irrigation should be given as per critical stages and availability of irrigation water. Number and frequency of irrigation depend upon the soil type and weather. The crop should get irrigation at an interval of 1015 days. From flowering to pod development stage, there is need of sufficient moisture in the field.
Disease and Pest conrol of Black gram
▲YM virus, Leaf curl, Seed rot, Anthracnose are main disease of Black gram.
1. YM virus: Spray Metasystox & Melathion.
2. Leaf curl: 23 sprays of Metasystox at 10 days interval.
3. Seed/seedling rot: Seed treatment with Thiram/carbendazim 2.5 g/kg seed.
4. Anthracnose: Spray Mancozeb/zineb @ 2 kg in 1000 lit. of water.
▲Hairy caterpillar, leaf hopper and jassids are main insect pest of Black gram.
1. Hairy caterpillar: Dusting 2n % methyl parathion @2530kg/ha.
2. Leaf hopper: Basal application of Phorate @ 10 kg/ha. Spray monocrotophos @ 1ml/lit. of water.
3. Jassids: Basal application of Phorate @ 10 kg/ha. Spray monocrotophos @ 1ml/lit. of water.
Harvesting of Black gram
Time- Kharif1: Early May.
Kharif2: Late October.
Pods and plant dried, Grains become hard and moisture % in grain at harvesting should be 2022%. The ripened pods can be collected from the plants in one or two pickings and dried on the floor. If the plants come to harvest, then the crop should cut and the plants spread over the floor to dry. The plants becomes dry and turn into black and pods may start splitting. The plants should be beaten using pliable sticks to prevent damage to seeds. Then seeds are separated from pods. These plants after harvesting can be used as fodder for animals.
Yield of Black gram cultivation