How to Grow Groundnuts/Production Technology of Groundnut
Common name: Groundnut/ Peanut/ Monkeynut.
Scientific name: Arachis hypogaea.
Groundnut is an important oil seed crop. It is also best edible oil crop. Although the quality of groundnut oil is superior to mustard oil but it is not popular in our country as cooking oil because of its consumption habit. It is mainly consumed as roosted nut and as a confectionary item.
Origin of Groundnut
The primary center of origin are southern Bolivia and northern Argentina. The secondary center of diversity are other South American countries like Peru, Brazil.
Variety of Groundnut
BARI China badam 5, BARI China badam 6, BARI China badam 7, BARI China badam 8, BARI China badam 9, Dhaka 1, DG 2, DM 1 (Tridana), Acc 12 etc.
Climate for Groundnut Production
• Groundnut is essentially a tropical plant and requires warm growing season.
• In 107-114 cm rainfall, groundnut successfully grown.
• Groundnut tolerate heavy rainfall up to 152 cm.
• Optimum temperature for growth 25300C.
• Below 200C retards development.
• Above 350C adversely affects flower production.
Soil for Groundnut Production
Light, well drained, Sandy loam or sandy soil of char (River embankment) area are suitable for groundnut production. Soil should be soft and loose so that gynophores of groundnut flower can easily penetrate the soil and go down to form nuts.
Land Preparation for Groundnut Production
Although, groundnut is a deep rooted crop, looking to its underground pod formation habit, deep ploughing should be avoided. Besides soils of char area are very loose, so 34 ploughing followed by laddering are sufficient. Irrigation and drainage system could be developed by making canals after final ploughing and laddering.
Seed rate depends on germination of percentage. However 95-110 kg/ha is optimum.
Pre-sowing seed treatment with Vitavax200, 23 g/ kg of seed or Agrosan, 4 mg/ kg of seed could reduce the disease infestation.
Time of sowing
Groundnut could be cultivated in both Rabi and Kharif season in Bangladesh.
• In Rabi season: Mid October Mid November.
• In Kharif: July August.
Seeds should be planted in rows.
1. In general (for all the varieties)
• Row to row distance is 30 cm.
• Plant to plant distance is 15 cm.
2. In Tridana variety (DM1)
• Row to row distance is 25 cm.
• Plant to plant distance is 10 cm.
3. Seeds should be placed at 23 cm depth of soil.
Fertilizer dose and application method for Groundnut Production
Groundnut plant itself fixes atmospheric nitrogen. So, the requirement of urea for this crop is very low. However, the fertilizer dose is
Urea 25-30 kg/ha
TSP 150-170 kg/ha
MoP 80-90 kg/ha
Gypsum 160-180 kg/ha
Zinc sulphate 45 kg/ha
Boric acid 9-11 kg/ha
All fertilizers should be applied before final land preparation.
Intercultural operation for Groundnut Production
Weeding: The seeds of groundnut within 2 weeks after sowing and start flowering 1 month later. Normally 12 weeding should be done. During weeding soil is loosened and earthing up is done by spade. The first spading is done 3 weeks after sowing and Second 3 weeks thereafter. Care should be taken not to disturbed the soil after flowers have set.
There is no need of irrigation in the soil of char area but in the high land where soil becomes dry quickly are required 12 irrigations.
• In Rabi season, 23 irrigation can be done: 1st at 2530 DAS, 2nd at 5055 DAS and 3rd at 7580 DAS.
• In kharif-1 (summer, March-June) season: 1 irrigation should be required depending on the field condition.
• In kharif-2 (summer, July-November) season: there is no need of irrigation. But Drainage may be needed to drain out excess water.
Pest Management of Groundnut
Major insects: Hairy caterpillar, Jassids and Thrips. Control measures
• In case of hairy caterpillar insect infestation, leaves of infested plant should be destroyed along with the eggs and larvae of insects.
• For adult insect control, Ripcord 10 EC or Nogos 100 EC should be sprayed @ 1 ml of insecticide with one liter of water.
• Diazinon 60 EC @ 2 ml per liters of water should be sprayed to control Jassids and thriphs.
Harvesting of Groundnut
Maturity symptoms: When plants become mature, the leaves of the lower parts of plants become yellow. Surface of pods become rough and hard, veins become prominent, inner surface of pods shell becomes blackish in colour. Cover of kernels become brown in colour. These are the ideal condition when the crop is ready for harvest.
Maturity time: Early variety: 120135 days, Late variety: 150180 days.
Method: Groundnut can be harvested with a country plough or spade.
Post-harvest Operation of Groundnut
Threshing: The harvested crop should be kept in small heaps for 23 days for curing. After curing the nuts are to separate from soil and soil adhering to the nuts should be removed.
Drying: Pods should be dried for 8 hours after harvesting. Moisture content of pods should be 89%. Seeds should be cooled and then stored after sun drying.
Storing: For storing groundnut, different types of containers may be used. If seeds are stored in air tight condition whether polythene bags and synthetic bags, the quality of seeds and viability of seeds are restored for more than one year but during rainy season, seeds should be checked and dried and kept in the same container.
Yield of Groundnut