How to Grow Rice
Origin: India or Burma.
1. Tropical, subtropical and temperate region.
2. Average temperature for tilt: period 21o-38 oC.
3. Temperature for seed germination 30°-35°C.
4. Temperature for ripening 20°-25°C.
5. Relative humidity 70-80%.
6. Prolong sunshine assure supply of water, rainfall 200cm/anum.
7. Soil clay to clay loam.
8. PH> 4-7.Rice prefer acid soil. Optimum PH>5.5-6.5.
Aus- BR-1, BR 8, BR 21, BRRI 43, BRRI 48, BRRI 55 etc.
Amon- BR-11, BR 22, BR 23, BRRI 25, BRRI 53, BRRI 56, BRRI 57 etc.
Boro – BR 17, BR 19, BRR1 55, BRR1 58.BRRI 29, BRRI 28 etc.
Land preparation (For Aus)
The field should prepared by 4-5 ploughing, cross ploughing with laddering.
Seed rate- 100 kg/ha.
Time of sowing– March-April.
Method of sowing– Broadcasting.
Fertilizer application (For Aus):
ZnSO4-10 kg/ ha
Total TSP, MOP, Gypsum, ZnSO4 and 1/4 urea should be applied during final land preparation. The remaining 1/2 urea are equally splited and top dressed at 35-40 DAS (Days After Sowing) and at 50-55 DAS.
Weeding (For Aus):
2-3 weeding is necessary start from very beginning, of the growth stage. Benthiocarp @2kg/ha should be applied 6-7 days after seedling of rice. It should be followed by one manual weeding at 40-45 DAS.
It is rain feed but if need one irrigation is done.
Raising seedling of transplant amon or Boro rice
Seedling of rice raise in seed bed. There are several types of seed bed. These are (i)dry seed bed, (ii)wet seed bed, (iii) floating seed bed and (iv) dapog seed bed.
For dry seed bed, the land should be prepared by several ploughing, cross ploughing along with laddering. Then the seeds are to be sown.
For wet seed bed after supplying of water. The land should be puddled by several ploughing, cross ploughing with laddering. Then sprouted seed are to be sown.
Size of seed bed:
500m2 seed bed is required for 1 hectare of main land.
Preparation of main land for transplanting Amon and Boro:
After supplying water land should be prepared b 5-6 ploughing and laddering. Land should be well leveled and removed of weeds and stables. Puddling is done by country plough or power tiller.
Uprooting of seedling:
The seedling may be uprooted from the seed bed when they are suitable for transplanting. The seed bed should be moistened by application of water so that root system isn’t damaged.
Age of seedling: 30-35 old days seedling for T-amon rice and 40- 50 for Boro rice.
Time of transplanting:
July-august for T-amon transplanting. December-January for Boro rice.
Method of transplanting:
Planting in line is better but haphazard planting may be done, if adequate population is assured. In normal condition 2-3 seedling/hill and for late planting 7-8 seedling /hill should be plant.
Depth of transplanting:
2-3 cm. Spacing- 25X15cm.
For HYV T-amon rice-
Urea- 180 kg/ha
TSP- 100 kg/ha
MOP – 70 kg/ha
Gypsum- 60 kg/ha
For Bow rice-
Urea- 200 kg/ha
TSP- 100 kg/ha
MOP- 80 kg/ha
Gypsum- 60 kg/ha
ZnSO4– 10 kg/ha
Total TSP, MOP, Gypsum, ZnSO4 and 1/3 urea should be applied during final land preparation and the remaining 2/3 urea equally splited and applied at 25-30 DAT (Day After Transplanting) and at 50-55 DAT.
Water Management (Bora and Amon rice)
Water requirements is high during initial seedlings period covering about 10 days. Early tillering and flowering is the most critical stage .Until transplanted seedlings are well established water should be allowed to stands in the field at a depth of 3-5cm. There after about 7-10 cm water may be maintained at early tillering and 12-15 cm water after maximum tillering stage. Ensure enough water from panicle initiation to flowering stage. Alternate irrigation and drying are at best. Water should be drained out 7-15 days before harvest.
Weeding can be done first at 15-20 D.AT (before top dressing to urea) and second at 50-60 DAT (before second top dressing .A number of herbicides has been found, effective in controlling weed. The herbicides are Stam F-34, Machete, and Ronstar etc. It should be applied within 7 DAT.
Insect and disease Control:
The important insect pest are stem borer, gall fly, Rice hispa, Leaf roller, Earhead cutting, caterpillar, Grasshopper, Mole cricket, Brown plant hopper, White backed grasshopper, Green leaf hopper, Ghundi bug tic.
General Control Measure
a. Cultivation of resistance variety.
b. Attractive by light trap.
c. Collection of eggs, larvae, pupa and destroy them.
d. Peg the bamboo stick (kunchi) into the soil in the rice field to sit birds on it for preying insect.
e. By piercing method.
f. Burn on stubbles.
g. Drained out stagnant water.
h. Spray the crop with-
a) Phosphamidon 100 EC for stem borer and gall fly.
b) Dimethiod 40EC for rice hispa
c) Fozalon 35 EC for grasshopper
d) DDVP 100 EC for earhead cutting caterpillar,
e) Malathion 57 EC for leaf roller, BPH, Green leaf hopper and Gandhi bug.
The important diseases are found in the rice field are Blast, brown spot, stem rot, Bacterial leaf blight, sheath blight, Bacterial leaf streak, False smut, Ufra, Bakane, Tungro etc.
a. Use disease free seed.
b. Cultivation of disease resistant variety
c. Collecting and burning infected plant
d. Used balanced fertilizer
e. Avoid standing water.
f. Spray the crop with Copper oxicloride, benlate, Humay, Anosan.
a. The green colour of the plant and grains turn into yellow or straw colour.
b. By observing Characteristic colour of grain for a particular variety
c. By means life duration of crop.
d. When moisture content grain about 20-25%.
e. The grain will be hard, if pressed with finger
f. The right stage of harvesting is when about 80% panicle have about 80% ripen spikelet
Method– The crop generally cut with sickle by hand. The plant should be cut quite closed to the ground. They should collect in bundles are stock for threshing.
Threshing-The most common method of threshing are bullock, rubbing with bear human foot, lifting the bundle and striking them on raised wooden platforms, Pedal thresher, Motor driven thresher may also be used.
Cleaning and Winnowing-After threshing separation of grain from stubbles and clean it by winnowing.
Drying and Storage-Then it is sun dried. After completion of drying wet grains and store in its bags or godawn. 12-14% moisture are safe for storing.
· Local variety 2.50-3 ton/ha.
· High yielding variety 4-6 ton/ha.
· Hybrid variety 6-9 ton/ha.