How to Grow Sunﬂower
Scientific name: Helianthus annuus.
Importance of Sunﬂower
Sunflower is one of the most important oil seed crop grown in temperate countries. It is a major source of vegetable oil in the world. Sunflower oil is considered as premium when compared to other vegetable oils. Sunflower is the oil of preference among the consumers the world over due to its health appeal. From 1975, it is cultivated as oil seed crop in Bangladesh. 40-45 % linoleic acid are present in Sunflower oil seed.
Origin of Sunﬂower
Asia or South or Central America.
Varieties of Sunﬂower
In Bangladesh Kironi (DS 1) and BARI sunflower 2 are cultivable varieties.
Climate of Sunﬂower Production
Crop requires a cool climate during germination and seedling growth. It requires warm weather from the seedling stage up to flowering stage and warm and sunny days during flowering to maturity. Sunflower is a photoinsensitive crop, therefore, it can be grown successfully in any season. Sunflower, unlike most other crops, is not affected with the season and day length. With the exception of freezing temperatures, the sowing of sunflower can be done in any month of the year.
Soil for Sunﬂower Production
Sunflower can be grown on a wide range of soils and tolerates a moderate pH range and some salinity. It thrives best on deep loam soils with good drainage and irrigation facilities. The optimum range of soil pH for this crop is 6.5 to 8.5.
Land Preparation for Sunﬂower Production
It needs to deep Ploughed land for sunflower cultivation. The land should be prepared by 45 ploughing, cross Ploughing with laddering.
Time of Sowing for Sunﬂower Production
It can be grown successfully in all season. Mid November to Mid-December are suitable time for sowing. It can be also sown in Mid-April to Mid-May.
Method of sowing
It can be sown in line sowing.
• Row to Row 50 cm.
• Plant to Plant 25 cm.
Seed Rate for Sunﬂower Production
8-10 kg/ha. For BARI sunflower 2, 12-15 kg seed are required for 1 hectare of land.
Seed are treated with Vitavax200 @ 3g/ kg of seed.
Fertilizer Application for Sunﬂower Production
Fertilizer Quantity/ ha
Urea 180-200 kg
TSP 150-200 kg
MoP 120-150 kg
Gypsum 120-170 kg
Zinc Sulphate 8-10 kg
Boric Acid 10-12 kg
1/2 of Urea and all fertilizer are applied in final land preparation. Rest of Urea are applied in 2 times. One of applied in 2025 DAS and others 4045 DAS before flowering.
Intercultural operation for Sunﬂower Production
Thinning: Thinning can be done in 15-20 days after germination of seed.
Weeding: Weeding can be done in 2 times. One of 20-25 DAS and others 40-45 DAS.
For more yield, Irrigation can be done in sunflower field.
1. First irrigation 30 DAS (Before flowering).
2. Second irrigation 50 DAS (Flower initiation time).
3. Third irrigation 70 DAS (Before maturity of seeds).
Pest and Disease of Sunﬂower
Sunflower beetles, Sunflower moths, Cutworm are main pest of sunflower.
· Cypermethrin 20 EC @ 2 mL/1 litre of water are applying 2 times in 10 days interval for sunflower beetles.
Sunflower leaf blight and sunflower root rot are main disease of Sunflower.
· Applying Rovral 50 WP @ 2% / L of water at 23 times in 10 days interval for leaf blight of Sunflower.
Harvesting of Sunﬂower
Time: After 90-110 DAS, it is proper time for harvesting. It takes about 8090 days in Kharif, 105-130 days in Rabi and 100110 days in spring season
Moisture content: The sunflower crop is ready for harvest when moisture in seed is 20 %.
Maturity Symptoms: Phenotypically the heads are ripe when back of the head turns yellowish brown. All heads may not be ready for harvesting at one time. Harvesting may therefore, by done in two or three instalments to avoid shattering.
Threshing: The harvested heads should be dried well in sun and then only threshes by beating the centre of the head with a small stick. The commercial crop may be threshed with available threshers by reducing their speed. Further, sundrying of the seed is desirable before storage or oil.
Yield of Sunﬂower
1.7-19 tones/ ha.