Mechanical Methods of IPM (Integrated Pest Management) with advantages and limitations
Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests. Mechanical control can be accomplished as the follows
The use of human hands to remove harmful insects or other toxic material is often the most common action by this method. Insect can be hand-picked and destroyed of their easily accessible to the pickers large and conspicuous and present in large number of clusters. e.g. Egg mass of rice stem borer, early larval stage of jute hairy caterpillars, adult of sugarcane stem borer etc. can be maintained by hand and destroyed.
2. Use of hand net and bag nets
Some adult insect can be collected and destroyed with hand nets. e.g. Green leaf hopper, Grasshoppers etc. can be controlled with hand nets when they migrate in AprilMay from maize to sugarcane. The bag nets can be used to control the some insects. e.g. Rice hispa from the field partially.
3. Beating and hooking
Various household pest like as housefly, cockroach etc. can be killed by beating with brooms, flappers etc. Again some pests which hide in the holes or crack of host such as Rhinoceros beetle, Jackfruit beetles etc. are killed by hooking with the help of crooked hooks.
4. Shaking and garring
Different insect such as cotton bug, mango shoot borer & defoliator etc. can be killed by shaking the small trees or shrubs. Particularly, every in the morning in cold season when insect are remain in the tree and collecting them tab containing kerosinized water or by hand crashing or leg crushing.
5. Sieving and winnowing
These method are commonly used against stored grain pest. Some insects, e.g. Red flour beetle are destroyed by collecting them through sieving and some insects. e.g. Rice weevil are destroyed by collecting them winnowing.
6. Mechanical Exclusion
Some of the insects are controlled by creating a barriers for insects in reaching the place where they causes. e.g. Application of a band of sticky material like ‘Ostico’ or a band of slippery sheets like alkathene around the trunk of a mango tree to prevent the upward movement of the mango mealy bug. Using of screens over the windows, doors and ventilators of house to keep away houseflies, Mosquitoes, bugs etc. Making trench of 30 cm depth around the field and applications on jute hairy caterpillar, Jute Semilooper from infested area to new field; Using red light in the monsoon to keep away most of insects.
7. Use of mechanical traps
Various type of traps have been used for collecting and killing different type of insect
i) Light trap
Light trap can be used to attract and kill the nocturnal insects. e.g. Leaf hopper, Jute hairy caterpillar, moths, stem borer of rice etc. An electric bulb or a lamp is place in the wide flat vessel containing kerosinized in which the moth, beetles get drowned.
ii) Air suction trap
Air suction trap used to against stored grain pest in godown.
iii) Electric trap
Like metal screens are used on which birds or insects are electrocuted.
Locust can be killed by the burning with the help of flame torches. Stored grain pest are also controlled by burning.
9. Crushing and grinding
This devices are used for Sugarcane. Sugarcane shoot borer are controlled by harvesting the sugarcane and then crushing for obtaining sugar.
10. Sound production
This device are mainly used in scaring these birds which attack fruits and grain crops. This is also used to control some insects like mosquitoes. Male mosquitoes can be attracted to outside of house by producing sound of female mosquito from outside.
11. Rope dragging in field
Rice case worm larva pupate in case prepared by the leaves which remains attached to the plant and can be removed by the dragging rope. Due to this case can fall in the stagnating water and removed easily.
12. Banding the trees
Mealy bugs on mango comes on soil for egg laying which can be prevented by putting sticky bands on stem.
13. Bagging the fruits
Fruit sucking moth on citrus or pomegranate suck the juice with the help of stout which can be prevented by bagging fruits.
14. Trenching the field
Pest like army worm, grasshoppers march from one field to other which can be prevented by trenching in field.
15. Tin collars on stem
rat can climb on coconut tree and damage the fruits. When we put the tin collars on stem they cannot climb.
Advantages of Mechanical Methods of IPM (Integrated Pest Management)
1. Skilled labours are not required.
2. Cost required is very less.
3. There are no any side effects.
Disadvantages/Limitations of Mechanical Methods of IPM (Integrated Pest Management)
1. Time and labour requirement is high.
2. This method is applicable only on small scale.
3. This requires repeated application.