Packaging of products in marketing
Definition of Packaging
Preparation of product or commodity for proper storage and/or transportation.
Or, Packaging is the technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Packaging is an important consideration in vegetable and fruit market. The use of properly designed containers for transporting and marketing of vegetables can significantly reduce their losses and maintain their freshness succulence and quality for longer period. Packaging also provides protection from mechanical damage and undesirable physiological changes and pathological deterioration during storage, transportation and marketing.
Many vegetables are transported in gunny bags of bamboo baskets. Packaging material such as polythene films, paper boards and boxes lived with polythene and other materials can effectively prolong the shelf life of vegetables. By using plastic films, vegetables can be protected from dry air. Polythene packaging, provides modified atmosphere and consequently reduces decay, softening and loss of solids. The thickness and permeability to CO2, O2 and water vapour of films needs to be standardized for each vegetable.
Example : In case of Brinjal and Cauliflower, thick films were found to develop off-flavour whereas thin and gas permeable films maintained Cauliflower for longer period and Okra fruits could last for nine days without deterioration and quality.
Packaging of vegetables in perforated films significantly reduces weight and water loss in transportation. Ex. Carrot.
Wide variety of containers such as Wooden boxes, baskets woven from bamboo or trees, hessian sack, earthen pots and Corregulated Fibre Board (CFB) boxes are important package forms used in transportation and distribution of fruits in most of the developing countries.
All the package must have some amount of ventilation in order to prevent physiological break down, the wooden boxes have a good stacking strength but they are heavy in weight.
Corregulated Fibre Board are made from the craft paper which can easily be manufactured from Bamboo, grasses and various types of agricultural residues as well as by recycling the used Card Boards or Papers.
Objectives of packaging
Physical protection: Since the objects enclosed in the package may require protection from among other things, mechanical shock, vibration, electrostatic discharge, compression, temperature, etc. packaging is important.
Barrier protection: A barrier to oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc. is often required. Permeation is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain desiccants or oxygen absorbers to help extend shelf life. Modified atmospheres or controlled atmospheres are also maintained in some food packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, sterile and safe for the duration of the intended shelf life is a primary function.
Shortage and usage: Packaging also facilitates the storage and use of products. Thus packages may be so designed as to conduce to the ease of handling by consumers and by members of the channel of distribution.
Convenience: Packages can have features that add convenience in distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, using, dispensing, reusing, recycling and ease of disposal.
Functions of packaging
To protect a product from damage or contamination by micro-organisms and air, moisture and toxins.
To keep the product together, to contain it (i.e. So that it does not spill).
To identify the product.
Protection during Transport and Ease of Transport.
Stacking and Storage.
Advantages of packaging
1. Packaging protects the product.
2. Packaging keeps the product from going bad.
3. Packaging decreases costs.
4. Packaging informs.
5. Packaging provides hygiene.
6. Packaging means economy.
7. Packaging is a preventive measure.
8. In short; packaging is an inevitable part of our lives.
Disadvantages of packaging
However, packaging creates the following problems:
1. Packaging exhausts natural resources.
2. Packaging is too expensive.
3. Some forms of plastic packaging are health hazards.
4. Packaging is deceptive.
5. Used and discarded packaging contributes significantly to the consumer protection problem.