Pest of vegetables with their life history, nature of damage and control measures
|Lady’s finger/ Okra Shoot and Fruit borer
Lady’s finger/ Okra Shoot and Fruit borer
Scientific name: Earias faabea
Apart from the okra is also influence cotton and the insect pest is known as spotted bowl worm.
i. The moth’s are small, female moth lay eggs singly tends parts of the plants. A female lays about 385 eggs.
ii. The incubation period is about 3 days.
iii. Dark coloured caterpillar after hatching bore down the top shoots. The larvae becomes full grown in 10-12 days.
iv. Pupal period to adult from 7to 10 days. The pupate in a silken cocoons either plants or on the ground among fallen leaves.
v. Total life cycle occupies 20-22 days and takes longer times in winter.
Nature of Damage
The caterpillar initially damages the tender shoot by boring into it which results in dropping on the
shoots. The larvae lets on bore into the fruits, young shoots, flowers buds. The feeding causes severe shedding of early form of flowers bud. It’s infestation on okra can be as high as 70%. Infested fruit become unfit for consumption and marketing.
i. Okra plot should be clean from fallen leaves and debris.
ii. Infested plant and shoot should be removed from field.
iii. Light trap should be used.
i. Spraying with Diazinon/ Diginol 60 EC @ 680 ml/acre.
ii. Spraying Sumithion/ Fenitox/ Edfen 50 EC @ 454 ml/acre.
iii. Spraying with Azodrin/ Nuvacron/ megaphos 40 WSC @ 454 ml/acre.
Scientific name: Aphis craccivora, A. fobae.
This is one of the commonest aphids found throughout the country infesting in varieties of plant. It is a vector of broad bean mosaic disease. It causes damage in 2 ways.
I. Directly through sucking the cell sap.
II. Indirectly carrying of disease/as a vector.
The life cycle of many aphids is more complicated and interesting. The most usual history of a
migratory aphids is as follows-
i. Aphids lays eggs in autumn and winter gives raise to apterous, viviparous,parthenogenetic female in spring. This individual are known as fundatrices (the first usually wingless
female of a season).
ii. They produce parthenogenetically and viviparously is very large number throughout the
iii. In the autumn, wing insect are produced and they fly to another host plant, where the viviparous female give their offspring in normal way and the life cycle is repeated.
iv. Winter is easily, usually passed in the eggs stage.
Nature of Damage
The nymphs and adults infest the tender shoot, inflorescence and tender fruits or pods in large
number and suck the cell sap. In the early stage, the tender shoots will dryer. Flower and tender pods fall of prematurly. Tender pods may dry in severe causes.
i. Infested plant should be remove and burnt.
ii. Use ash on the plant.
Spraying with Malathion/ Zithiol/ Maladon/ Fyfanon 57 EC @ 454 ml/acre.
Spraying with Sumithion/ Fenitox/ Edfen 50 EC @ 454 ml/acre.
Spraying with Roxion/ perfecthion/ Tafgor 40 EC @ 454 ml/acre.
Scientific name: Agrotis ipsilon
The cut worm is a polyphagous insect and infest potato, tomato, cabbage, groundnut, bean and other vegetables seedlings.
i. Adult moth is white colour, A female lays about 300 eggs in several masses on the under
side of the leaves of the host plant.
ii. The incubation period 213 days depending on seasonal condition.
iii. The dark brown larvae with red head becomes full grown in about a month.
iv. Pupation takes place in soil in earthen chamber. Pupal stage lasts for complete in about
v. There are 3 generation of the insect in a year.
Nature of Damage
The larvae become active during night. The stem of the younger plants are cut at a height of about
5 cm from ground level and in this way a large number of plants are damaged. This results is
reduction in yield
i. The clod of the field should be broken.
ii. The flooding of the infested field also control the pest.
iii. Plant residues and debris should removed from the field.
iv. Clean cultivation should be practiced.
Application of Heptachlor/ Chlordane 40 WP @ 1.8 kg/acre to the soil.
The use of poison bait:
- Chlordane/ Heptachlor 40 WP3 pounds.
- Wheat bran or rich husk 100 pounds.
- Molasses 810 pounds.
- Water as much require to make pest.