- 1 Steps of extension programme planning
- 1.1 1. Collection of facts
- 1.2 2. Analysis of situation
- 1.3 3. Identification of problems
- 1.4 4. Determination of objectives and goals
- 1.5 5. Developing plan of work and calendar of operation
- 1.6 6. Follow through plan of work and calendar of operation
- 1.7 7. Evaluation of progress
- 1.8 8. Reconsideration and revision of the program
Steps of extension programme planning
The principles of extension programme planning indicate earlier shall help us to develop the logical steps in program planning process. There are 8 steps which form a continuous cycle of program determination and programme implementation in extension. The steps are discussed with examples.
1. Collection of facts
It is the starting point of program planning process. Pertinent data may be collected from the available records and by survey of the area. Information relating to the people their Enterprises, levels of Technology, facilities and constraints values etc relevant to program building maybe collected. Information also be collected from other organisations in the area. The program planning process is explain with an example. There is a village where farmers are poor and something is to be done to improve the condition.
We conduct a survey of the village and collect information on the number of farm facilities, their occupations, land use pattern, utilization of water resources, facilities for marketing availability of inputs and credit, their attitude towards various Enterprise, the strength of extension services in the area etc. We also collect relevant information from other organisations.
2. Analysis of situation
The data and information collected are then analysed in an unbiased way, keeping in view the feeling expressed by the client system. This shall help in understanding the situation in its proper perspective.
3. Identification of problems
A correct analysis and interpretation of the data shall help in correctly identifying problems. There may be many problems but only the urgent and significant ones which may be solved with the available resources and within limits of time should be selected. Selection of a large number of problems which cannot be properly managed may lead to a failure of the program and generate frustration among the people.
In the present example, after analysis of the data and relevant information with the local people three most important problems are identified which need immediate solution. These are, for example; low levels of income employment and nutrition in the farm families.
4. Determination of objectives and goals
The objectives are then set forth on the basis of the significant needs identified. The objectives should be direct and stated in the clear terms. In the present examples, the objectives then become to increase levels of income, employment and nutrition of the farm families in the village. To make the objectives realistic and actionable, there is need to state them in terms of specific goals.
In the determination of goals it may be necessary to again go through the data and information analyzed to find out what could actually be done in the existing situation with the available resources and time which will be compatible and with which the shall people cooperate. It is necessary to discuss with the local people and institution which shall also legitimize the program planning process.
5. Developing plan of work and calendar of operation
The plan of work should be in written form and shall indicate who shall do what job. i.e. what the change agent system and thus line system shall do which institutions, organisation, Service Department shall be involved what will be the financial requirement and how it shall be met; what arrangements shall be made for marketing of the produce, training of the farmers and so on.
The plan should have all the essential details and no important should be left out. The calendar of operation shall be prepared on the basis of the plan of work and shall is specified when a particular work shall be done preferably mentioning data and time; how much quantity of different inputs including credit shall be required and when these must be made available when where and for how many days the farmers and farm women shall be trained.
Who are the specialist to be involved in training and preparing the handouts when the publication shall be ready for distribution etc. that is the calendar of operation shall specifically state how and when all the significance activities shall be performed. This should be at least for one season or for a period of one year. In that case, they may be termed as seasonal plan or annual plan.
6. Follow through plan of work and calendar of operation
This is not a routine of work as many people may think. Training of participants, communication of information, conducting method demonstration, making regular visits and mentioning are some of the important function the extension agent shall perform at this stage. The work shall include solving and unforeseen problems and taking Cooperative steps where needed.
The performance of extension agent and the organisational support received at this stage may make the difference between success or failure of a program. Obtaining feedback information as to what is happening to the farmers after introduction of new technology is extremely important at this stage.
7. Evaluation of progress
Evaluation is the process of determining the extent to which we have been able to attain our objectives. All programs must have an inbuilt system of evaluation to know how well the work is done. It should be a continuous process not only to the measure the end result but also to ensure what all the steps are correctly followed.
Evaluation maybe formal and informal depending on the importance of the program and also on the availability to trained manpower, funds, facilities and time. Program evaluation involves the following three essential steps
• Setting up of some standards or criteria in relation to the objectives.
• Collection of information.
• Making judgement and drawing some unbiased and valid conclusion.
8. Reconsideration and revision of the program
On the basis the result of evaluation, the program should be reconsideration and revised if needed. This reconsideration should be done not only with the participants but also with the scientist, administrators in extension organisation and local bodies. Reconsideration shall help in making necessary corrections and modifications in the program.
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