How to Grow Safflower/Production Technology of Safﬂower
Local Name: Karadi, Kusum, Kardai, Kusumbha.
Botanical Name: Carthamus tinctorius.
Abyssinia and Afghanistan.
Economic Uses of Safflower
1. Safflower is most important rabi oilseed crop.
2. It is grown mainly for edible oil and sometimes for dye purpose.
3. The oil is good for heart patients as it contains polyunsaturated fatty acids.
4. It is drying oil and hence used in manufacture of paints, varnishes, water proofing material, adhesives for glass etc.
5. The oil cake from decorticated seed is fed to cattle.
6. The leaves of young plants are used as vegetable.
7. Red and yellow dye obtained from the flower heads is used for colouring cloths.
8. It is grown as border crop to protect the main crop from domestic animals.
9. Dried stalks are used as fuel or for making paper.
10. Oil content of safflower is about 28 to 30 p.c.
11. Safflower oil does not increase the cholesterol level in human blood and hence good for health.
N628, Sharda, Tara, Bhima, CT11, N300, N7, Nira.
Climatic Requirement of Safﬂower Production
♦ Safflower is grown in cool and dry climate.
♦ It is drought resistant crop.
♦ It is grown as rainfed crop in areas receiving about 1000 mm rainfall.
♦ High humidity and rainfall increases damage from fungal diseases.
▲Safflower comes up well in well drained, fertile medium to heavy soils.
▲It is grown on light alluvial and loam soil as an irrigated crop.
▲It is grown mainly on black cotton soils as unirrigated crop.
Preparation of Land
Safflower requires one deep ploughing once in 3 years followed by 2 to 3 harrowing. Collect the stubbles of previous crop and prepare clean seed bed. 5 to 10 tons FYM/ha. is added into soil at the time of last harrowing. As a mixed crop safflower shares the preparatory tillage, manuring and Intercultivation given to the main crop.
Safflower is sown in the month of October – November.
▲As mixed crop: 8 to 15 kg/ha.
▲As pure crop: 20 to 25 kg/ha. Spacing
• 45 X 20 cm (Rainfed).
• 60 X 30 cm (Irrigated).
Sowing is done with thiram @ 3g or captan @ 2.5 g/kg seed to control seed borne diseases.
5 to 10 tons FYM/ha. is added into soil at the time of last harrowing. The dose of fertilizer is
a) Rainfed safflower: 25 kg N/ha.
b) Irrigated safflower: 50 kg N, 25 kg P2O5/ha.
Rainfed crop fertilizers should be applied at the time of sowing. In case of irrigated crop half dose of N and all P should be applied at the time sowing and remaining half dose of N at 30 days after sowing.
Safflower is a drought resistant crop hence generally grown as rainfed crop on stored moisture. As irrigated crop first irrigation is given before sowing. The other irrigations should be given at flowering and grain filling stage 35 to 40 days and 65 to 70 days after sowing respectively.
1. Rotations followed in safflower are:
i) Bajra /Jowar– Safflower. ii) Mung/Udid– Safflower. iii) Groundnut– Safflower.
2. It is grown as mixed crop with wheat, gram, rabi jowar etc.
3. It is also grown as inter crop and border crop.
4. As inter crop one to two rows of safflower are altered with six rows of main crop (2:6).
As mixed or inter crop it receives the intercultural operations done for main crop. As pure crop, two thinning after 10 days and 20 days after sowing should be done to keep proper spacing. One weeding and 2 hoeing should be given at 15 day interval for removal of weed and alter the soil. At the age of 45 to 60 days tops of the plants are cut down called topping. The operation is carried out for more branching, flowering and ultimate yield.
Pests and Diseases control of Safﬂower
Important Pests of Safflower Fly, Safflower leaf cutting caterpillar, Safflower aphids.
1. Spraying of 0.07% endosulfan or 0.05% Malathion for fly.
2. Dusting of 10% Carbaryl @ 20 kg/ha or spraying of 0.05% endosulfan for leaf cutting caterpillar.
3. Spraying of 0.03% Dimethoate or 0.02% thiometon for two times at 15 days interval or Dusting of 10% Carbaryl or 4% endosulfan @ 20 kg/ha. for aphids.
Important Diseases of Safflower are Rust of Safflower, Bacterial leaf blight.
1. Treat the seed with thiram @ 3 g/kg or captan 2.5 g/kg seed or Spray 0.3% dithane M45 at 15 days interval for 3 to 4 times for rust disease.
2. For Bacterial Blight, Spray streptocyclin 500 ppm of 2 to 3 times.
Harvesting of Safﬂower
Time: For grain purpose the safflower become mature in about 120 to 125 days. It is harvesting after drying of the leaves and capsules.
Method: Harvesting is carried out by uprooting the plants or by cutting near to the ground early in the morning when there is a dew on the plants. The plants are heaped for a few days for drying.
Collection of Dye from Flowers
For dye purpose the flower heads are plucked at 2 to 3 day interval and dried. The ray florets and disc florets are collected. The yellow dye is obtained by dissolving them is water. The remaining pulp is dried and made into small cubes and used for obtaining saffron red dye. The saffron red dye is obtained by dissolving them in alkali. The dye is used for colouring the cloths
Dried plants are threshed by beating with stick and winnowed to obtain clean seeds. For dye purpose the flower heads are plucked at every 2 days after flowering.
i) Mixed crop 125 kg/ha.
ii) Sole crop 500 to 800 kg/ha.
iii) Dye purpose 100 to 150 kg dried petals/ha.