Transplanting is the removal of an actively growing plant from one place and planting it in another for further growth and production. This operation may be performed when the seedling high acquire some ability to endure such shocks and when environmental conditions are favourable for easy establishment in the new location. Seeds of some crops such as wheat, rice, jute, sunhemp, mustard, sesame, linseed, groundnut, gram, pea, lentil, soybean, spinach etc. are directly sown in the main field but seeds of some crops such as rice, vegetables, seasonal flowers etc. are sown in the nursery bed.
Seedlings are raised in the nursery bed for the following reasons
i. The seedlings of some crops are raised in the nursery bed whose seeds are smaller in size and seedlings need sufficient care during early stage of growth.
ii. The seeds of some crops that do not respond well in direct seeding the main field are sown in the nursery bed and the seedlings an. transplanted in the main field.
iii. The seedlings are transplanted just after the harvesting of the crops, On the other hand, the crops will be late, if the seeds are sown after the preparation of land.
iv. Seedlings are raised in nursery bed with sufficient care and they are protected from the attack of insect pests and disease.
v. Roughing of crops become easy.
vi. The crops such as vegetables, seasonal flowers etc. yield better if they are transplanted in the main field after raising the seedlings in the nursery bed.
In general, transplanting is done with, seedlings (rice, tobacco, tomato, brinjal), saplings (subabool), stecklings (sugar beet), transplants (seedlings or saplings that are grown an additional year or two in the nursery to make them more stout and strong) or even wildings (naturally sown plants dug up for transplanting). Sometimes in rice, clones or tillers that form after transplanting are separated and used for second-time transplanting (double transplanting).
Advantages of transplanting
Transplanting maintains a plant population per unit area. In addition, the rows are set according tc the requirements. Seedlings are planted at uniform distance and number per hill. Duration of crops in the main field is minimized. As the healthy seedlings are transplanted only, a good stand establishment can be ensured in the field. If we want to go for intensive rice cropping, thenSowing and Planting 257 seedlings must be raised in the nursery bed for transplanting in order to provide three rice crops per year per field.
Other advantages are:
i. Saving and proper utilization of costly seeds is possible.
ii. It is easy to nourish the young and tender seedling in nursery bed.
iii. It stimulates the seedling to produce more roots.
iv. It is possible to grow crop under unfavourable climatic condition.
v. It is possible to produce more plants of high quality through transplanting.
vi. Some vegetables can grow well when transplanted.
vii. Through transplanting, higher yields with more uniform maturity are obtained.
Disadvantage of transplanting
Total life duration of field crop increases by some 7-10 days. Transplanting requires more time and energy. It increases the cost of production of crops during nursery bed preparation, subsequent aftercare and transplantation.
Other disadvantages are:
i. Transplanting increases the labour and power requirement in a peak period.
ii. Gap filling operation is necessary.
iii. Direct sown/seeded crop do not grown well if transplanted.
Field condition for transplanting
Field must be wet, anu moisture condition of soil has to be above saturation level. In addition, the field needs additional water to be puddled, and puddling becomes a prerequisite for transplanting in many cases.