Subsistence Farming: Definition, History, Characteristics, Types

Subsistence agriculture, often referred to as sustenance farming, is a practice deeply rooted in history and culture, providing communities with the means to sustain themselves by producing enough food to meet their basic needs. It stands in contrast to commercial agriculture, which focuses on producing goods for sale and profit. In subsistence agriculture, the primary goal is not profit but rather self-sufficiency and survival. This article explores the definition, characteristics, history, contemporary practices, types, and examples of subsistence agriculture.

Definition of Subsistence Farming

Subsistence agriculture can be defined as the production of crops and livestock primarily for the purpose of feeding oneself and one’s family or community. It is characterized by small-scale farming, minimal use of modern technology, and reliance on traditional farming methods passed down through generations. Farmers in subsistence agriculture typically grow a variety of crops suited to their local climate and soil conditions, often using organic or traditional farming practices.

Characteristics of Subsistence Farming

Key characteristics of subsistence agriculture include:


The primary aim of subsistence agriculture is to meet the basic food needs of the farmer and their family, with any surplus often used for barter or local trade.

Traditional Techniques

Subsistence farmers often rely on traditional farming techniques and tools, such as hand tools and animal traction, rather than modern machinery and equipment.

Crop Diversity

Subsistence farmers tend to cultivate a variety of crops, which helps reduce the risk of crop failure due to pests, diseases, or adverse weather conditions.

Limited Surplus

While subsistence farmers may produce a surplus of food in good years, their focus is not on generating profits for commercial sale but rather on ensuring food security for their families and communities.

History of Subsistence Farming

Subsistence agriculture has been practiced for thousands of years and is deeply intertwined with the history of human civilization. In ancient times, early human societies relied on subsistence farming to feed themselves, cultivating crops such as wheat, barley, rice, and maize. As civilizations developed, subsistence agriculture remained the dominant form of farming for much of human history, particularly in rural areas where access to modern technology and markets was limited.

By the early 1900s, subsistence farming had almost disappeared from Europe. As agricultural tenants and sharing farmers left the American Midwest and South in the 1930s and 1940s, it started to decline in North America. Semi-subsistence farming was once again a part of the transition economy in Central and Eastern Europe after 1990, but by the time most of these nations joined the EU in 2004 or 2007, it had either gone away or become less important.

Contemporary Practices

While subsistence agriculture continues to be practiced in many parts of the world, its prevalence has decreased in the face of urbanization, industrialization, and globalization. However, subsistence farming still plays a crucial role in providing food security for millions of people, especially in developing countries where access to modern agricultural inputs and infrastructure is limited.

Contemporary subsistence farmers may incorporate some modern technologies and practices into their farming methods, such as improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation techniques. However, the core principles of subsistence agriculture—self-sufficiency, small-scale farming, and reliance on traditional knowledge—remain unchanged.

Subsistence farming continues today in large parts of rural Africa, and parts of Asia and Latin America. In 2015, about 2 billion people (slightly more than 25% of the world’s population) in 500 million households living in rural areas of developing nations survive as “smallholder” farmers, working less than 2 hectares (5 acres) of land. The average farm size in Ethiopia is less than two hectares [Reference]. The average farm in Ethiopia produces ten different crops and livestock varieties [Reference].

Region/Country% of  smallholder farmers
Ethiopia and Asia90
Types of Subsistence Agriculture with Features and Examples

Types of Subsistence Agriculture with Features and Examples

Subsistence agriculture can be categorized into several types based on factors such as climate, geography, and cultural practices. Some common types of subsistence agriculture include:

1. Shifting Cultivation:

Shifting cultivation, also known as slash-and-burn agriculture, is a traditional farming method practiced predominantly in tropical regions with dense vegetation. Characterized by its cyclic approach to land use, shifting cultivation involves clearing a patch of land, burning the vegetation to release nutrients into the soil, cultivating crops for a few seasons, and then moving to a new plot of land once soil fertility declines.

Key Features

  • Cyclic Land Use: Land is utilized in rotational cycles, allowing for natural regeneration of vegetation and soil fertility.
  • Low External Inputs: Reliance on natural processes for soil enrichment, with minimal use of external inputs such as fertilizers or pesticides.
  • Crop Diversity: Farmers often grow a variety of crops suited to local ecological conditions, including staple food crops and cash crops.
  • Sustainable Practice: When practiced sustainably, shifting cultivation can support biodiversity conservation and maintain ecosystem resilience.

Regional Examples

Shifting cultivation is prevalent in regions such as Southeast Asia (e.g., Indonesia, Malaysia), parts of Africa (e.g., Congo Basin, Amazon rainforest), and indigenous communities in South America (e.g., Yanomami tribes).

2. Sedentary Farming:

Sedentary farming, also referred to as settled agriculture, involves the permanent or semi-permanent cultivation of land in fixed locations. Unlike shifting cultivation, sedentary farming relies on stable settlements and continuous cultivation of the same land plots over extended periods. This form of subsistence agriculture is characterized by its focus on establishing permanent agricultural systems and infrastructure.

Key Features

  • Permanent Settlements: Farmers establish permanent residences and agricultural infrastructure, including irrigation systems, terracing, and storage facilities.
  • Intensive Land Use: Land is cultivated continuously, often using techniques to maximize yields and soil fertility, such as crop rotation and soil conservation practices.
  • Higher Productivity: Sedentary farming tends to yield higher agricultural productivity compared to shifting cultivation due to the intensive management of land and resources.
  • Market Integration: Surplus produce from sedentary farming may be sold or exchanged in local markets, contributing to economic diversification.

Regional Examples

Sedentary farming practices can be found worldwide, from the rice terraces of Southeast Asia (e.g., Philippines, China) to the maize fields of sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., Nigeria, Ethiopia) and the wheat-growing regions of South Asia (e.g., India, Pakistan).

3. Intensive Subsistence Farming:

Intensive subsistence farming involves the intensive cultivation of small land holdings to maximize agricultural output. This form of farming is prevalent in densely populated regions where land scarcity necessitates efficient land use. Intensive subsistence farming often relies on manual labor, traditional farming techniques, and family-based farming units.

Key Features

  • Small Land Holdings: Farmers cultivate small plots of land intensively, often using labor-intensive methods such as hand cultivation and transplanting.
  • High Crop Diversity: Multiple crops, including rice, wheat, pulses, and vegetables, are grown to meet diverse dietary needs and reduce the risk of crop failure.
  • Low Mechanization: Limited use of mechanized equipment, with farming operations primarily carried out manually or with simple hand tools.
  • Labor Intensive: Family labor plays a central role, with household members actively involved in all aspects of farming, from land preparation to harvesting.

Regional Examples

Intensive subsistence farming is prevalent in densely populated regions of South and East Asia, including the rice-growing regions of China, the rice paddies of Vietnam, and the wheat fields of northern India.

4. Pastoral Nomadism:

Pastoral nomadism revolves around the seasonal movement of herds of livestock in search of pasture and water sources. This mobile form of subsistence agriculture is practiced in arid and semi-arid regions where crop cultivation is challenging. Pastoral nomads maintain a symbiotic relationship with their livestock, relying on them for sustenance and economic livelihood.

Key Features

  • Seasonal Migration: Pastoral nomads move their herds between seasonal grazing areas in response to changes in pasture availability and water sources.
  • Livestock Dependency: Herds of sheep, goats, cattle, or camels are the primary source of food, milk, wool, and hides for pastoral nomadic communities.
  • Flexible Social Structure: Nomadic societies often exhibit flexible social structures, with kinship ties and communal cooperation playing crucial roles in resource management and mobility.
  • Adaptation to Harsh Environments: Pastoral nomadism represents an adaptive strategy for coping with the challenges of arid and semi-arid landscapes, utilizing mobile lifestyles to exploit dispersed resources.

Regional Examples

Pastoral nomadism is practiced by various nomadic communities worldwide, including the Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula, the Maasai of East Africa, the Mongolian nomads of Central Asia, and the Tuareg of the Sahara Desert.

Role of Subsistence Farming in Poverty Alleviation

80% of the poor in low-income countries live in rural areas, and more than 90% of rural families have access to land [Reference]. However, most of these rural poor don’t have enough food to eat. Subsistence farming plays a pivotal role in poverty alleviation efforts, serving as a lifeline for millions of individuals and families in rural areas of developing countries. 

Role of Subsistence Farming in Poverty Alleviation

1. Livelihoods and Income Generation:

Millions of people and families depend on subsistence farming. Smallholder farmers use subsistence agriculture to produce food and sell surpluses. Subsistence farmers can reduce poverty by growing crops and raising livestock to pay for healthcare, education, and shelter.

2. Food Security and Nutrition:

Subsistence farming is essential for rural food security, especially in areas with limited market and food supplies. Farmers can avoid hunger and malnutrition by growing a variety of crops that suit local ecological circumstances. Due to its nutritional diversity, subsistence farming increases health and food crisis resilience, especially for children and pregnant women.

3. Asset Building and Poverty Reduction:

Smallholder farmers can build land, cattle, and agricultural equipment through subsistence farming, reducing poverty over time. Subsistence farmers can rise out of poverty with sustainable agriculture and productivity. Investments in agricultural infrastructure, technology, and market access can boost subsistence farming systems’ resilience and production, alleviating poverty.

4. Resilience to Shocks and Crises:

Rural communities are protected against economic downturns, natural disasters, and other crises by subsistence farming. Subsistence agriculture is more stable than cash crops or wage labor, which might fluctuate with the market or employment. Subsistence farmers can use their agricultural skills and local resources to support themselves and their families throughout droughts, floods, and wars, minimizing their vulnerability to extreme poverty and dependence on help.

5. Sustainable Development and Environmental Stewardship:

Sustainable development through eco-friendly agriculture and ecosystem preservation is promoted by subsistence farming. Subsistence farming promotes soil protection, biodiversity conservation, and water resource management through traditional and agroecological methods, unlike intense commercial agriculture, which deforests, degrades, and pollutes. Subsistence farmers help agricultural systems and rural communities survive by living in harmony with nature.

Role of Subsistence Farming in Adaptation to global warming

Due to its endurance and adaptability, subsistence farming is crucial to global warming adaptation. As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events like droughts, floods, and heatwaves, subsistence farming can help alleviate their effects. Subsistence farming is essential for global warming adaptation for these reasons:

Crop Diversity and Genetic Resilience

Subsistence farmers often cultivate a diverse range of crops adapted to local climate and soil conditions. Crop diversity ensures food security and enhances resilience to climate variability. Subsistence farmers can reduce crop failure and preserve output in changing climates by planting a variety of crops with various temperatures, precipitation, and insect tolerances.

Agroecological Practices

Subsistence farming relies on traditional and agroecological practices that promote soil health, water conservation, and biodiversity conservation. Crop rotation, intercropping, agroforestry, and natural pest control increase ecosystem resilience and mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon in soils and vegetation. These methods improve soil structure and water retention, making farms drought- and flood-resistant.

Water Management and Irrigation Techniques

To cope with water scarcity or irregular rainfall, subsistence farmers use creative water management and irrigation methods. Rainwater gathering, contour farming, and drip irrigation conserve water, decrease soil erosion, and provide crop water during dry spells. Maintaining agricultural output in water-stressed regions requires such adaptations.

Traditional Knowledge and Indigenous Practices

Subsistence farmers have invaluable expertise and indigenous traditions perfected over centuries to adapt to local climates. Subsistence farmers can create sustainable context-specific adaptation techniques by maintaining and merging traditional understanding with modern research. Indigenous techniques including seed saving, soil conservation, and traditional indicator weather forecasting boost climate change resilience and adaptability.

Community-Based Adaptation and Social Cohesion

Subsistence farming builds social networks and community-based adaptation mechanisms to address climate change. Subsistence farming groups can develop communal water storage facilities, seed banks, and emergency relief networks by sharing resources, expertise, and labor. This collective resilience improves social cohesiveness and solidarity, helping communities adapt to global warming.


Subsistence agriculture continues to be an important livelihood strategy for millions of people around the world, providing food security and sustaining rural communities. While facing challenges from modernization and globalization, the resilience of subsistence farming lies in its adaptability and deep connection to local cultures and environments. As efforts to promote sustainable agriculture and food security continue, recognizing the importance of subsistence farming in supporting livelihoods and preserving traditional knowledge remains essential.

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