Maturity of fruit and vegetables [symptoms of maturity]

Maturity of fruit and vegetables [symptoms of maturity]


1. Slight colour developed on the Shoulders.

2. When one or two ripe fruits fall from the plant naturally.

3. When the specific gravity of fruit ranges between 1.01-1.02.

4. Number of days taken by the fruit to mature depends on variety and climatic condition. However fruits mature between 90 to 120 days from the fruit set stage.

5. Pulp dry matter content should be at least 14%.


1. When the fruit is mature, the spokes of the rinds become flat and the tips become black.

2. The other indices used are density of latex. Watery latex at harvest maturity and concentrated white milky latex at immature stage.

3. Metallic sound on striking the fruit with a finger indicates in mature stage whereas dull sound indicates mature fruits.

4. More space in between the surface protuberance.

5. In general, fruits mature between 120 to 150 days from fruit set stage.

6. Tender Jackfruit for use as vegetables should be harvested until the seeds harden.


 In general, harvesting for local markets should be done at the full maturity stage and for distant markets at 70 to 80% full green or with light colour beak stage.
 The lowermost eyelets in the variety Gaint Kewshow; orange yellow color and eyes get flattened in the centre and bulge on the sides. While Honey Queen variety is harvesting at

✓ M1- Fruit turning yellowish at the base,

✓ M2- Fruit is coloured up to half of its height. i.e. 25 to 50% yellow,

✓ M3- Fruit is coloured more than half of its height. i.e. more than 50% yellow.

For local consumption, harvesting is mostly done at M3 stage and for long distance distribution harvesting takes place usually at M1 and M2 stage depending on the buyer’s choice.


1. The fruit should be harvested when the ridges on the surface of the skin change from angular to round. i.e. after the attainment of 3/4th full stage.

2. A bunch is usually takes 90 to 120 days to mature after emergence of inflorescence, depending on the climate and variety.

3. The floral part at the top of the fruit should be dried up and the base of the bunch should be changed in colour from Dark green to light green.


1. Generally takes 55 days after fruit set for reaching optimum maturity.

2. Flatness of tubercles and smoothness of pericarp.

3. Fruit colour changes from Green to Pink on maturity.

4. At optimum maturity stage, the fruit should have 18.1° Brix TSS, 0.24% acid and 1.00 specific gravity.


1. Mature green fruits should be harvested for vegetable.

2. Peel colour changes from Green to yellowish green for dessert.

3. Latex of the fruit becomes watery.

4. The first fruits would be harvested 12 to 14 months after transplanting.

5. Fruits for local market can be harvested when they are half ripe.


1. Desirable size of the Pods attained.

2. The tips of the pods can easily be Snapped.

3. The tender young fruits of 7 to 10 cm long should be harvested every alternate day.

4. The pods of okra become ready for harvest from the 6th day of flowering.


1. Desirable size and colour attained.

2. Skin should be bright and glossy. Over mature fruits are dull, seedy and fibrous.


 It depends on the purpose for which they are used and distance over which they are to be transported. The following stages of maturity for harvesting have been recognised

Immature: before the seeds have fully developed and before the jelly like substance surrounding the seeds have formed.

Mature green: seeds are surrounded by jelly like substances filling the seed cavity. The fully grown fruit shows a brownish ring at stem scar.

Breaker stage: 1/4 of the surface at Blossom end shows pink.

Pink: 3/4 of the surface shows pink.

Hard ripe (Red ripe): nearly all red or pink but flesh in firm.

Over ripe: Fully coloured and soft.

 For long distance transportation should be picked at mature green stage and ripened after reaching the market.

 For processing: Fully ripe to ensure desired quality and red colour in product.


1. Desirable size attained.

2. Cauliflower should be harvested at the stage when the curd is compact.

3. Over mature curd becomes loosened with elongated flower cluster.

Leave a Comment