Role of Organic matter in Soil fertility
1. Soil is the most important natural resources and its fertility and quality indicator for sustainable crop production.
2. OM is the vital factor for retaining nutrient in soil. It also resource of plant nutrient especially N and some micro nutrient.
3. OM improves soil structures through aggregation that favourably influence tillage free operative crusting, water infiltration, moisture retention, aeration, temperature and root penetration.
4. OM influence water holding capacity of soil, reduce residual negative effect of fertilizers and pesticides.
5. It makes the crop more tolerant to disease, insects and also prevent soil erosion.
6. OM increases the capacity of soil to buffer and phosphates fixation.
7. OM is the energy for soil microorganism which are the primary agent that enhanced the decomposition and release of mineral in soil.
8. It prevents leaching loss of different nutrients.
9. It makes phosphorus more available in acid soil and reduces alkalinity in the soil.
10. OM also create a positive soil environment from which plant can uptake nutrient from applied chemical fertilizer.
11. It increases uptake of chemical fertilizers by plants thereby increases crop productivity and reduces toxic flow of active chemical fertilizer to the environment. Thus the optimum level of OM builds and maintain positive soil properties that support plant growth.