Micro Economics:

Microeconomics deals with the behavior of elements in the economy, such as determining the price of a single product or the behavior of a single consumer or business farm.

Microeconomics is the study of particular firms, particular households, individual prices, wages, incomes, individual industries, and specific commodities. — (Boulding)

Macro Economics:

Macroeconomics deals with the economy’s behavior concerning output, income, price level, foreign trade unemployment, and other aggregate economic variables.

Microeconomics is concerned with the aggregate and average of the entire economy, such as national income, aggregate output, total employment, total consumption, savings, investment, aggregate demand and supply, general price level, etc.


Goods have special meanings in economics. Anything that satisfies a human want is called good. Goods have qualities that can meet up human desires. Goods are the tangible and material outcomes of production. Examples: Foodgrains, seeds, fertilizers, machinery, book, pen, etc.

Types of goods:

Free goods: Free goods mean those goods that men do not pay money and labor to achieve. Viz. Sand in the desert field, light, air, water of river and sea, etc.

Economic Goods: Economic goods mean scarce goods, which are limited in supply. That’s why; we have to pay money and labor for having these goods. Viz., Shirt, Shari, pant, pen, etc.

Material Goods: Which goods can be visible and touchable is called material goods.

Non-material Goods: Which goods cannot be visible and touchable is called non-material goods. Viz., goodwill of the business, services of doctors, nurses, etc.

Consumer’s Goods: Consumers’ goods are those goods that are wed directly for the purpose or satisfaction. Viz., Food, cloth, pen.

Capital Goods: Capital goods are those goods that are used directly in production activities. Raw materials, machinery, etc.

Service: A service is an act or performance that one party can deliver to another. Services are intangible, non-material, inseparable, and perishable. The services rendered by teachers, doctors, lawyers, laborers, etc. are the example.

Wealth: All economic goods are wealth in economics. Wealth consists the four features like (i) Utility, (ii) Supply must be limited/Scarce, (iii) Transferability, (iv) Externality.


The utility is the capacity or quality of goods, which can meet up human wants. So, it means the power of a commodity to satisfy a human want. In this case, goods may be good or bad, which can satisfy human wants. Sweets, alcohol, etc. Three types of utility as:

i) Form Utility: By changing the form of a good, greater utility is created. It means that change in the form offers greater utility to the good. Example: Processing paddy into rice, wheat into flour, coffee seeds into coffee powder, cotton into cloth, etc.

ii) Place utility: by transporting a commodity from one place to another, the commodity will have di &rent utilities. Such utility is called place utility. Special movement of the goods, i.e., moving a good from one place or market to another place or market, increases its utility. Mostly the goods are transported from the place of surplus production to the place of scarcity. Example: Cement, fertilizer, etc.

iii) Time Utility: Any time lag between production and consumption of commodities creates time utility. Through storage over time, greater utility is created for the products. Storage helps to create time utility.

iv) Possession Utility: Commodities in the transaction process change the hands from one person to another person. Commodities in the hands of producers have some utility, and by the time they reach consumers through the traders, their utility is increased. Such utility due to the possession or transfer eel ownership of the commodity is called possession utility. Example: paddy in the hands of the producer. i.e., the farmer has less utility compared to that of the consumer in the form of rice.

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