Technology Transfer process
Before going details into technology transfer process it may be useful to define the concept of transfer and process.
The word transfer has got different meanings. The most commonly used definitions are stated below:
- Spreading of a technology-through different communication media from its source to ultimate use.
- Diffusion of a technology from the centre of excellence to the members of a social system either institutionally or non-institutionally.
- Movement of a technology from one locality/ area to another locality/ area through ripple effect (interpersonally) at least in a homogeneous society.
The word process can be defined as a course of procedures, something that occurs in a series of actions or events conducting to the desired end.
Technology and is thus the exchange of technical information between R & D (Research and Development) workers who create technological innovation, and the users of new idea (Rogers and Hart, 1998): transfer of technology (ToT) is not merely the means of transferring knowledge, information and skills about the technology to its potential users but also helping them to use these technologies fruitfully to their advantages (Kashem, 1988, The basic consideration in the transfer of technology is “how to acquire and use the information,” which requires the transfer of skills, managerial know-how, and adaptation. Transfer of technology means the movement of technology (usually generated at the research institutes) through extension systems to user systems (i.e. end users).
The extension system also includes the adaptive research, farm trial, farming systems research (FSR), and multi-location testing (MLT). Moreover, for effective transfer of technology support services such as inputs, credit and marketing of produces also have to be considered. The concept of participatory technology development (PTD) has also now become one of the main concerns of the social scientists in respect of technology development. The PTD, however, refers to combining the knowledge and research capacities of local communities and of research and development organizations in an interactive learning process. It involves identifying, generating, testing and adapting new techniques and practices (ILEIA, 1991:4). The ultimate aim is to strengthen the experimental and technology management capacities of the local people. The technology transfer process incorporating the PTD is diagrammatically shown in Figure. The technology transfer process is one of the key components of the overall agricultural development process. The overall, agricultural development process thus involves the following three distinct systems:
i. Research Systems (development of technology through basic and applied research).
ii. Extension System transfer of technology by acting as interpreter, disseminator and facilitator).
iii. Client System (technology utilization by farmers, i.e the target group of farmers who are expected to adopt they technology into their existing farming systems).