|Transportation and Modes of transportation list|
Modes of transporttaion list
Definition of transportation: Fresh fruit and vegetables transportation is the act of bringing produce from growing region to areas of marketing and consumption.
List of transportation: The following modes of transportation are used worldwide (including Bangladesh).
1. Overland road service.
2. Railway transport.
3. Inland river and Marine transport.
4. Air transport, on passenger and cargo planes.
1. Overland Road Transport
This transport system has increased very significantly over the world and now is the most dominant transport system due to several reasons.
In Bangladesh, Road Transport is done with open non refrigerated trucks. These are managed inadequately. The produce is loaded in ways which promotes major problems such as inadequate transport containers, inappropriate stacking, inadequate package, very rough loading methods, poor or non existing air circulation, heating and mechanical injury to the produce. This system must be changed if food losses are to be reduced. Non refrigerated transport must be improved by reducing the transported load improving the stacking system, avoid heating and mechanical damage to the produce. Refrigerated containers should be introduced in Bangladesh.
2. Railway Transport
This transport system can provide smooth ride, relatively inexpensive even though it slower than other transport system and less versatile. However, this system of transport is declining significantly all over the world. Refrigerated and insulated Railway Wagons may be used for transportation of perishable produce.
3. Inland river and Marine Transport
River transport is commonly used in several countries especially in Asia. This system can be slow and it commonly non-refrigerated motorized country boat may be used for the transportation of the fresh horticultural crops. Marine transport of horticultural crops has increased significantly all over the world because of low cost compared to any Transport. This transport system is usually used for long distance and therefore it is not adequate for very perishable crops.
Bangladesh with its large rivers and water ways with access to the Bay of Bengal and with several port facilities has good potential to export perishable crops by sea. However, at the moment this alternative is not developed in the country.
4. Air Transport
Air transport is still mostly done on passenger airplanes with very little quantities of crops been carried on cargo planes. This system is relatively fast and therefore it is suitable for very perishable crops however its cost is still very high.
All exported horticultural crops from Bangladesh to Europe and the Gulf states are done by air. Perishable crops shipped from Bangladesh by air are very poorly handled. Most of these crop are not pre-cooled nor refrigerated before shipping and airport and planes do not provide any refrigeration system. Most of the packages used for these crops are inadequate and most of them are not even mean for perishable crops. Handling of these crops especially at the waiting points in Bangladesh and even at the reviving points at destination is not adequate at all for perishable foods.
Points to be considered during transport
1. Refrigerated capacity of the container should be adequate.
2. The vehicle and load should pre-cool before loading.
3. Good air circulation is required to maintain temperature uniformity to avoid the buildup of hot spots and the accumulation of gases such as carbon dioxide and ethylene.
4. Transport containers should not be overloaded to permit an adequate air circulation.
5. Stacking patterns and packages type and design should be adequate to permit an adequate air movement. Package design should be allowed in top, bottom, back and side of the load to permit air circulation.