Definition of transportation:
Transportation is the act of bringing produce (fresh fruits and vegetables) from a growing region to marketing and consumption areas.
Modes of transportation list:
The following modes of transport are used worldwide.
- Overland road service.
- Railway transport.
- Inland river and marine transport.
- Air transport, on passenger and cargo planes.
1. Overland Road Transport
This transport system has increased very significantly worldwide and now is the most dominant transport system due to several reasons.
In Bangladesh, Road Transport is done with open non-refrigerated trucks. These are managed inadequately. The produce is loaded to promote significant problems such as inadequate transport containers, inappropriate stacking, inadequate package, very rough loading methods, poor or non-existing air circulation, heating, and mechanical injury to the produce. This system must be changed if food losses are to be reduced. Non-refrigerated transport must be improved by reducing the transported load, improving the stacking system, avoid heating and mechanical damage to the produce. Refrigerated containers should be introduced in Bangladesh.
2. Railway Transport
This transport system can provide a smooth ride, relatively inexpensive even though it slower than other transport systems and less versatile. However, this system of transport is declining significantly all over the world. Refrigerated and insulated Railway Wagons may be used for the transportation of perishable produce.
3. Inland River and Marine Transport
River transport is commonly used in several countries, especially in Asia. However, this system can be slow, and commonly, the non-refrigerated motorized country boats may be used to transport the fresh horticultural crops. Marine transport of horticultural crops has increased significantly worldwide because of low cost compared to any Transport.
Inland river and marine transport system are usually used for long-distance travel; therefore, it is not adequate for very perishable crops. With its large rivers and waterways with access to the Bay of Bengal and with several port facilities, Bangladesh has good potential to export perishable crops by sea. However, at the moment, this alternative is not developed in the country.
4. Air Transport
Air transport is still mostly done on passenger airplanes with minimal quantities of crops been carried on cargo planes. This system is relatively fast, and therefore it is suitable for very perishable crops; however, its cost is still very high.
All exported horticultural crops from Bangladesh to Europe and the Gulf states are done by air. Perishable crops shipped from Bangladesh by air are very poorly handled. Most of these crops are not pre-cooled nor refrigerated before shipping, and airports and planes do not provide any refrigeration system.
Most of the packages used for these crops are inadequate, and most of them are not even mean for perishable crops. Handling these crops, especially at the waiting points in Bangladesh and even at the reviving points at the destination, is not adequate for perishable foods.
Points to be considered during transport
- The refrigerant capacity of the container should be adequate.
- The vehicle and load should pre-cool before loading.
- Good air circulation is required to maintain temperature uniformity to avoid the buildup of hot spots and the accumulation of gases such as carbon dioxide and ethylene.
- Transport containers should not be overloaded to permit adequate air circulation.
- Stacking patterns and packages type and design should be adequate to permit proper air movement. The package design should be allowed in the top, bottom, back, and side of the load to permit air circulation.