A. On the basis of agricultural use:
1. Pastoral farming: Farming without cultivation of land ii known as pastoral Farming. In pastoral farming, the land is usually used under natural grass and the main purpose is to raise cattle, horses or sheep. For getting wool, hides, meat, milk, butter and cheese this type of farming has a great importance.
1. No cost of fodder crop production
2. A large number of fallow land easily become productive
1. Lower production of fodder crop due to zero tillaging.
2. This farming is not possible due to lack of land area.
2. Arable farming
The farming, in which cultivation is involved, is called arable farming. Arable farming may be devoted to (i) crop raising only a single crop or variety of crops being grown, (ii) a kind of mixed husbandry in which a certain number of livestock may be combined for the production of milk and milk products.
(i) Pure arable/Specialized farming: When a farm business unit derives more than 50 per cent of its income from a single enterprise it is called as a specialized farm. This means that among the possible crops or livestock enterprises taken up by a farmer, one particular crop or livestock enterprise contributes more than 50 per cent of the income. The reasons for specialized farming are; 1) assured income from the enterprise; 2) its suitability to the area; 3) its relative profitability etc.
1. Better Utilization of Land: Land can be put to most productive use by optioning the enterprise that is best suited. A given type of land no doubt allows options for alternative crops; still there is a possibility of a particular crop capable of rewarding the farmer with better income.
2. Better Management: Specialization since is bestowing attention on a particular enterprise, it reduces the pressure on the farmer to care for several enterprises. Naturally it reduces the wastage of resources.
3. Less Requirement of Equipment: The farmer can carry on the business activity with the_ equipment that is required for the chosen enterprise. There are no pressing requirements to equip the farm with a variety of equipment.
4. Increase in Skill of the Farmer: The efficiency of the farmer increases as he concentrate on one enterprise. His experience in the enterprise sharpens his skills running the enterprise.
5. Better Marketing: On marketing front the front, the farmer is better. He is saved from the pressure of finding market if he were to sell diversified products. It allows for better marketing functions i.e., assembling, transport, grading, financing, etc.
1. Failure of Crop: The farmer runs the risk of losing heavily in case, failure of crop OMITS. There possibility of compensation. This is the biggest drawback of specialized farming.
2. Non-utilization of Productive Resources: Since the farmer confines to one or few enterprises, the various farm resources like land water, labour, capital, etc. may not be fully utilized. In view of the limited enterprises, some of the resources may remain untapped or under-utilized.
3. Affect on Soil Health: Continuous raising of one crop or few crops may be exerting greater pressure on soil health. This practice does not allow crop rotation, thereby affecting the soil health.
(2) Diversified Farming
It is also known as .general farming. Here farming is diversified i.e., a number of enterprises are taken up on the farm at the same time It also means production and sale of theme product art different time during a year. There is no much significance for a single enterprise under this situation. No single enterprise contributes as high as 50 per cent of the total income derived in farming.
1. Better Utilization Farm Resources: In view of the diversified cropping and crop rotations, land, labour and farm machinery and equipment are better utilized compared to specialized farming.
2. Reduction of Farm Risk: As a variety of crops are found, failure of one or two crops will not much affect the income from farming, Farmer can withstand the loss incurred from one or two enterprises.
3. Flow of Income: The farmer enjoys the advantage of deriving regular income, as different crops are grown.
1. Ineffective Supervision: The presence of a number of enterprises on the farm will stand in the way of the farmer in bestowing effective supervision. Effectiveness can be found when there is a limit to the number of enterprises. The diversified enterprises allow the scope for the leakages in the farm business go unnoticed. This is likely to affect the farm economy.
2. Less Possibility for Maintaining a Variety of and Machineries: It becomes expensive to purchase and maintain the required suitable implements and machinery for the various enterprises taken up on the farm.
3. Probable Marketing Insufficiencies: The growing of a variety of crops is likely to brine in problems on marketing front. The farmers have to search for market.
(3) Mixed Farming
It represents a type of farming in which crop production and livestock production are combined to sustain and satisfy as many needs of the farmer as possible. There are limits specified regarding contribution of livestock production, poultry, fisheries, and bee keeping, etc., to the gross income on the farm. These enterprises are supposed to contribute at least 10 per cent of gross income. However, this contribution should not exceed 49 per cent.
1. Mixed farming facilitates the application of organic manuring to soil, thus helping the maintenance of the soil health.
2. It provides employment to the farmer and his family throughout the year.
3. Agricultural byproducts are properly used in mixed farming.
4. It provides a sort of stability to the farm business.
1. It involves higher initial and current cost.
2. It is difficult to start up as it is complex.
3. It receives different types of implement and labour.
4. Better specialized equipment and machinery on the farm will not be considered.
A single crop or a variety of crops is grown.
1. Possible to earn large amount of foreign exchange by capturing monopoly marketing system.
2. Efficiency and skills are increased of .farm labours who are involved in crop production, processing and marketing.
3. It is easy to farm mechanization.
4. Agro-based industry may be established.
5. Quality of crops may be increased.
1. Risk should be taken due to loss of crops by damage.
2. Crop rotation may not be possible.
3. Insect pests and diseases appear as epidemically.
Different crops or different varieties of crops are grown in different plots is called multiple farming.
1. Crop rotation is possible.
2. Farm labour can be engaged throughout the year.
3. Different crops may be grown.
4. Risk of loss for failure of crops is low.
1. Complete farm mechanization is not possible.
2. Soil and climate may not be favourable for different crops.