Principles of extension program planning
A principle is a statement of policy to guide decision and action in a consistent manner (Mathews). Principle is a universal truth that has been observed and found to be true under varying conditions and circumstances. A principle is a fundamental truth and a settled rule of action. Extension programme have the definite purpose of improving rural life through individual group and community action. Extension programme planning has certain principles which hold irrespective of the nature cliental and the Enterprises they may pursue.
1. Extension programme planning should be based on an analysis of the past experiences, present situation and future needs.
For program determination, adequate information about the people and their situation has to be collected. The present situation is to be analyzed and interpreted on the basis of past experiences by taking local people into confidence. This shall help in arriving at the future needs.
2. Extension programme should have clear and significant objectives which could satisfy the important needs of the people
The ultimate objectives of program building are to satisfy the needs of the people. For this purpose, significant objectives pertaining to the important needs of the people should be selected and clearly stated. The emphasis Shall be on what is attainable rather than on what is ideal; also one should not lose sight of the later.
3. Extension programs should be fixed up the priority on the basis of available resources and time
The rural people, particularly in the developing countries, have a multitude of problems. All problems cannot be taken up at a time for a solution because of the limitation of trained personnel, availability of funds, facilities, and other resources. Time is also a limiting factor as both the people and the funding agencies cannot wait for an indefinite period of time to get the result. Considering all these parameters, it is essential to fix up priorities in the program.
4. Extension programs should clearly indicate the availability and utilization of resources
An extension programme should clearly state where the funds, facilities, supplies, and the needed personnel shall be available and how these shall be utilized. This shall make the program practical and workable.
5. Extension programs should have a General agreement at various levels
Programs prepared at the various levels such as a village, district, state, and National levels should conform to each other and shall not work at cross purposes. Similarly, the extension programme of a particular department should not be conflict or contradiction with the extension programme of another department.
6. Extension programs should involve people at the local level
Extension programs are implemented at the local level. Local people should, therefore, be involved all through program formulation to programme implementation.
7. Extension programs should involve relevant Institutions and Organisation
Extension programs cannot be implemented in isolation. It requires the support of many Institution and Organisation. The program should broadly indicate the Institutions and organisations to be involved and how they shall contribute in attaining the program objectives.
8. Extension programs should have definite plan of work
The plan of work maybe separately drawn up or Incorporated in the program. The program should at least broadly indicate how it will be executed . Unless the plan of work is drawn up the program remains a theoretical exercise.
9. Extension programs should provide for evaluation of results and reconsideration of the program
Extension programme is not a static outline of activities. The program should make provision for periodical monitoring and evaluation of result to judge its progress. On the basis of the findings of evaluation, the program should be suitably modified to facilitate its reaching the objectives within the stipulated period of time.
10. Extension programs should provide equal distribution of benefits amongst the members of the community
It has been found that in a community, generally, the resources-rich person benefits more in comparison to the resources poor from the implementation of extension programs. As this may generate social disparity and social tensions. The planning of extension programs should give adequate emphasis on the weaker section of the community.
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